Sunday, December 20, 2015
Definition of Marketing Management Concept
Concept Marketing Management - Marketing is a process that aims to satisfy the needs and desires of consumers. Marketing has been seen as an important element in establishing and building companies. With a business environment that is increasingly competitive and changing market nature of the sales market into a buyers market or market power in the hands of consumers. So that the activities of the company to adjust the orientation of the orientation of production to consumers.
Marketing is not limited to the business world, because in fact every relationship between individuals and between organizations that involve the exchange process is the marketing activities.
Lots of marketing definitions put forward by experts, although different but basically have the same meaning. The difference is due to differences in viewpoint only. To clarify the concept of marketing, then here are a few opinions of experts.
1 Philip Kotler
"Marketing is a social and managerial process by which a person or group to obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value. (Kotler, 1986: 5) "
2. William J. Staton
"Marketing is a whole system of business activities aimed at planning, pricing, promoting and distributing goods and services that satisfy the needs of both the buyers existing and potential buyers." (Stanton, 1986: 7)
From the definitions above can be deduced that the marketing have the following meanings:
Marketing is a process that is carried out individually or in groups.
The process of exchange of flows of goods and services from producers to consumers.
The existence of human wants and needs that must be satisfied by other human activities that produce the means of gratification in the form of goods and services.
Marketing is an integrated activity dynamically, in the sense that marketing is the result of a wide variety of activities.
Select and implement marketing activities that can assist in achieving corporate objectives and adapt to the environment is the goal of a marketing manager. Marketing management have processes to influence the level, range time and the composition of demand in a way to help the company achieve its goals.
Understanding Marketing Management Expert according Severe - Philip Kotler as follows:
"Marketing management is the analysis, planning, implementation and supervision of the program which has been designed to create, build and maintain exchanges and profitable relationship with the target market with a view to achieving the objectives of the organization. (Kotler, 1986; 20) "
From these definitions it can be seen that the marketing management function includes process involving analysis, planning, implementation and supervision of the activities undertaken by the company. The activity aims to generate a desired exchange, either to address the needs psychological, social and culture that can be adapted to consumer attitudes and behavior.
For a company to get its survival to flourish and gain a marketing advantage to be one of the most important activities. The company focuses its efforts to achieve success in the long term. The philosophy is the concept of marketing.
All the company's activities should be devoted to find out what the consumer activity and then satisfying those desires.
In marketing concepts taught that the marketing activities of a company should begin with efforts to recognize and formulate the wishes and needs of consumers. Then companies adjust their activities in order to satisfy the needs of consumers with an effective and efficient manner. The purpose of the effective and efficient here is in meeting the needs of consumers should be well targeted and timely, that is what customers want and whenever consumers want it.
According to the definition of the concept of marketing Philip Kotler:
"The marketing concept is a coordinated marketing effort that focuses on market and customer oriented with the aim of providing customer satisfaction as the key to achieving organizational goals. (Kotler, 1997, 17) "
From the above definition of the concept are four main components underlying the marketing concept, namely:
1. Market Focus
Companies must be able to limit and define the market that will make the target due to the fact there is no company that is capable of performing all of its activities in all markets to meet customer needs.
2. Orientation on customers
Customer-oriented company should not oriented company, this is to provide the best service to the consumer may give rise to a sense of loyalty towards customers.
3. Integrated Marketing
The company's activities must be coordinated well with other parts of the company to try to give satisfaction to the consumer.
Through the concept of marketing companies should try to build a good relationship with the consumer, so as to create mutual beneficial relationship. Companies are not required to be able to sell goods and services produced but rather to produce goods and services that can be sold.
So the concept of marketing companies exploring what is desired and needed by consumers and then develop products that will satisfy the desires of consumers and makes a profit, but with the development of technology and society has led to the development of marketing concepts as well.
Now the company is required to be able to respond to pressures from outside, customer dissatisfaction, attention to environmental issues and political forces that are legal. Companies no longer oriented to consumers, but also should be oriented toward social responsibility. The concept of marketing and social responsibility of a company that goes with this tune called community marketing concept (Social marketing concept).
In order for the concept of marketing and social responsibility can work in harmony, management must strive to create a balance of long-term program to:
Satisfy consumer desires buyers
Satisfy wishes of the people who are affected by corporate activities
Achieve the purpose of obtaining profits.
Changes in circumstances that continuously occur in society has consequences for the concept of thinking change from time to time. The orientation of the company reflects the company adaptation to changing circumstances and conditions
Definition of Marketing According to Experts
As the stages of development of marketing concepts as follows: (Swastha, 1997; 17)
1. Production Concept
This concept suggests that customers will understand the products that are widely available and the price is cheap, then the management should concentrate on improving the efficiency of production and distribution.
2. Product Concept
This concept argues that consumers will love the quality products, appearance, best traits, then the organization must devote continuous effort in product improvement.
3. Concept Sales
This concept argues that consumers if left alone, it usually will not buy the products of the organization of the company, the company must conduct aggressive sales and promotional efforts intensively.
4. Marketing Concepts
The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering products that satisfy more effectively and efficiently than competitors.
5. The concept of Social Marketing
This concept is adhered to the notion that the task of the company is to determine the needs, wants and interests of target markets and to give satisfaction in a more efficient and effective than competitors, so as to ensure or encourage well-being and community.
Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence With On Student Achievement - A lot of the work done by the students for achievement of learning in order to be the best as follow tutoring. Such efforts clearly positive, but there are still other factors not less important in achieving success in addition to intelligence or intellectual prowess, these factors are emotional intelligence. Because intellectual intelligence alone does not provide preparation for individuals to face the turbulence, opportunities or difficulties and life. With emotional intelligence, the individual is able to know and respond to their own feeling well and able to read and face the feelings of others effectively.
Individuals with well-developed emotional skills means that most likely he will succeed in life and have the motivation to excel. While individuals can not hold control over his emotional life will experience inner battles that damage their ability to focus on their tasks and have a clear mind.
A report from the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs (1992) stated that success in school is not foreseen by a collection of facts a student or his premature ability to read, but by measures of emotional and social: namely in yourself and have an interest; know the patterns of behavior that is expected of others and how to control the impulse to misbehave; is able to wait, follow the instructions and referring to the teachers to seek help; and expressing needs while hanging out with other students. Almost all the students were poor school performance, according to the report, does not have one or more elements of emotional intelligence (regardless of whether they also have cognitive difficulties such as learning kertidakmampuan). (Goleman, 2002: 273).
Research Walter Mischel (1960) on "marsmallow challenge" at Stanford University showed children at the age of four years is able to delay the impulse, after graduating high school, academically more competent, more able to organize ideas logically, seta has a passion to learn more high. They scored significantly higher on SAT tests than children who are not able to delay the impulse (in Goleman, 2002: 81).
Individuals who have high levels of emotional intelligence is better, can become more skilled at calming themselves quickly, rarely contracted the disease, more skilled in focus, better in dealing with others, more competent in understanding others and for academic work at school better (Gottman, 2001: xvii).
Emotional basic skills can not be possessed of a sudden, but needs to learn and environmental processes in the form of emotional intelligence is a big influence. The positive thing would be obtained if the children are taught the basic skills of emotional intelligence, emotionally it would be intelligent, understanding, easy to accept feelings and more experience in solving the problem itself, so that when the teenager will be more successful in school and in touch with colleagues peers and will be protected from risks such as drugs, delinquency, violence and unsafe sex (Gottman, 2001: 250).
From the above it can be concluded that emotional intelligence is one important factor that should be possessed by students who have a need to achieve better learning achievement at school ..
Friday, December 11, 2015
Definition of Organizational Communication According to the experts, Papers, Journals, Flow, Communication Networks
Definition of Organizational Communication According to the Experts - The organization is an entity or entities composed of persons / sections in which there is cooperation activities Based on the patterns and rules to achieve common goals.
When organizations associated or applied to groups of people, it can be concluded that
The group as a whole, has the primary goal,
Members of the group work as a unit to achieve their primary goal,
Every individual has a function designed that contribute through the achievement of goals or objectives,
Everyone's work would not be possible or can not be separated from the efforts of others,
Each member associated with the other members of this group in a special way (Gerald, 19).
Communication is important for organization and information essential for effective communication. Someone who will control the power control information organization. The organizational structure is determined by the effectiveness of the communication. When an organization is required to achieve the objectives, the members of which are within the structure will work in accordance with the position and function to achieve the intended purpose. Each structure complement each other and influence each other. Consequently, the members-members in it will be interconnected through the methods of achieving goals. Thus, members of the organization structured into interconnected systems are able to interpret the message, both coming from members of groups / organizations themselves or come from outside, or able to communicate something to whom and in what manner.
Communication within the organization can occur in the form of words written or spoken, gesture, or a visual symbol, which results in a change of behavior in organizations, both among managers, employees, and associates involved in the delivery or transfer of communication. The end result is the exchange of information and delivery of the significance or the process of communication activities within the organization.
Specifically, there are three organizational communication activities, namely:
Operational-Internal, which structure the communication executed in an organization in order to achieve the objectives of employment.
Operational-Externally, the structure of communication within the organization that concentrates on achieving the goals of the work carried out by people and groups outside the organization.
Personal, ie all the incidental changes and information and feelings felt by humans that took place whenever they are together (Lewis, in Rahman, 2000: 3).
Network and Communication Flow Organization
a. Organizational Communication Networks
Network is a system of communication line associated with the sender and receiver in a social function organization, influencing the behavior of individuals who work in them and the position of individuals working in the network stretcher and plays a key role in determining behavior, and the behavior of the people they affect ,
Lewis split 4 (four) communication network functions, namely:
Findings / innovative network,
Integrity of integrative / maintenance network, and
Network informative-instructive. Each network is connected between one or more organizational goals (eg, compatibility, adjustment, moral, and institutionalization).
The fourth function of the communications network is described as follows:
Network communication regular contact with the organization's goals regarding assurance of conformity to planning, guarantee productivity, including controls, orders, forms of command and feed beck (feedback) subordinate to the superior (higher in the task of activity. Examples : statement of policies and rules.
Innovative communication network strives to ensure organizational adaptation to internal and external influences (technology, sociology, education, economics, politics) and support for the continuation of the productivity and effectiveness, including problem solving, strategic adaptation to change, and the implementation of new ideas. Example: suggestions and meeting participation system troubleshooting.
Integrative communication network / maintenance including feelings of self, combined (solidarity) and the work that is directly related to the purpose of the organization, its main problem employee morale. Indirectly linked to the institutionalization that involves self-organization and take the distance to rumor, informal (unofficial), for example grapevine, excessive praise, and promotion.
Informative-instructive communications network aims to ensure the objectives are more suitable, appropriate, moral, and institutional. Thereby increasing productivity and effectiveness. This includes the provision and acquisition of information is not associated with other communication networks. These instructions subordinating the requirements of the job early, for example: records bulletins, corporate publications and training activities.
Looking at the organization as a network communications condition information implies the nature and dynamics of behavior. In addition to the communication system as a sub group of the system, it will be easier for us to find out about the four main sub-systems.
b. Organizational Communication Flow
Communication patterns and activities of the organization is dependent on the purpose, management style and organizational climate is concerned, it means that communication depends on the forces at work in the organization, which is shown by those who do the sending and receiving messages.
Based on the functional flow of the communication that occurs within a formal organization consists of a vertical flow (from top to bottom and from bottom to top) and horizontal flow (lateral or cross).
1. Flow Vertical Communications (Vertical Communication Flow)
a. From top to bottom (Downward Communication)
This communication channel is most often used in oganisasi. The communication flow is sending a message of leadership (supervision) to subordinate (subordinate). This current is used to send orders, instructions, objectives, policies, memorandum to employees at lower levels in the organization. The most fundamental problem is that the communication from the top down only one way channel, which does not provide feedback (feedback) of workers in the organization. The assumption is that if workers know what is known to the manager, then they will force themselves to resolve the problems of the organization / company. That is, the information leads to understanding and understanding produce actions and desired completion.
According to Katz and Kahn (in Rahman, 2000) there are 5 types of special type of communication downward, namely:
Job Instruction (Work Instructions), namely komunikai which refers to the completion of specific tasks.
Rationale Job (Job ratio), which is communication that produces understanding of the task and the relationship with other settings.
Procedure and Practice (Procedures and Implementation), the communication of the policies, rules, regulations and benefits exist.
Feedback (Feedback), the communication appreciative of how individuals carry out their duties properly.
Indoctrinations of goals, namely communications designed with character ideology that motivate employees about the importance of an organization's overall mission.
Two things can happen based on the type of the above are the limitations and ambiguities. Some of the reasons that led to the communication from the top down is not effective is
There is a lack of clarity in defining the responsibilities of komkunikasi from top to bottom,
Lack of understanding of the management of subordinates,
Management does not have the time to find out whether they serve communication techniques are effective or not,
Managers do not hold face to face meetings between supervision and non-supervision to discuss business conditions and employment,
Lack of communication training programs in order to teach the art of personnel management in understanding the rules of the game are there and the goals of workers as well as differences in the value of existing systems.
To avoid the consequences of ineffective communication, the manager should be more meetings with the workers. If this is not done then the results appear can be described as follows:
Bosses fail to explain the duties of subordinates or fail to give an accurate picture of their position in the organization.
Subordinates also failed to understand the explanation given, and perhaps they are in the position of not being able or not to be questioned about it.
Managers and subordinates may have a conflict of values.
The basic method of downward communication has three essential elements that should be considered by managers, namely:
1. Specifying the target to communicate.
2. Ensure that the contents of the communication has the following qualities:
Orientation and receiver
There is no hidden meaning
3. Apply the most good technical communication in order to effectively get the message among the recipients.
The main key of downward communication is that workers should react more efejktif to the problems that they consider to be the most personal interests against the boss.
But the important thing here is if managers and workers want to achieve the goal of clear roles and obtain accurate information, each group requires an understanding of the flow of communication.
2. Communication from the bottom up (Upward Communication)
This communication is communication originating from subordinate (subordinate) to superiors (supervision) in order to provide feedback (feedback) for management. Workers using this communication channel as an opportunity to express ideas or ideas that they know. The basic assumption of this upward communication is that workers should be treated as a partner in finding the best way to achieve the goal. Communication from the ground up to be interesting ideas and help workers to receive better answers about the problems and responsibilities and to help ease the flow and receipt of communication from subordinates to superiors (manager), ie in this case the hearing that both produce a good listener ,
Upward communication has five specific types, namely:
Information on employee attitudes, morale and efficiency related to policy, planning, and issue-problem.
Significant development work units in the department.
Errors which lowers efficiency.
The problem is not known how the settlement by workers.
Some of the reasons that cause the upward communication is not effective is:
Many workers are afraid to assume that expresses things about the company is actually very dangerous,
Pekeja believe that if they conflict with the leadership, it will hinder the promotion. Criticism and expression is seen as an action like that one because it can create subordinate look bad in the eyes of the boss,
Workers sure that they are not interested in their problems. A management controller, run by his own mind regardless of the range and the thinking of employees,
Workers felt that the idea was not appreciated,
Workers are sure that there are shortcomings in terms of capability and responsibility, and
The workers believe that the manager does not directly solve the problem.
Besides, a failure in this communication if managers receive incorrect information from subordinates, caused among other things:
Workers do not want to learn everything supervision of actual and potential discredit the workers,
Ordinary workers accentuate its contribution to the company to superiors or competition with people in other parts of the organization,
Anxiety workers personally, hostility, aspirations and belief systems are almost always shaping and coloring the interpretation of their acceptance of what they have learned and received for distribution, and
Workers are competing for the position of manager and allow managers to exercise its authority in a professional organization.
Three factors consistently associated with upward communication is:
Subordinate trust the boss,
Subordinate perception that superiors strongly influence their future later, and
Mobilizing subordinate aspirations.
All subordinates will tend to distort the communication from the bottom up through the structure of authority, which would create greater participation, less secretive, and subordinates feel less dependent on superiors.
There are several factors that can lead to the emergence of a climate conducive to distortion, such as:
a. Authority structure of the organization.
Arbitrary authority and more flexible tend to increase the distortion of the communication from the bottom up, values and rules to the contrary, secretion, and the closure of supervision is a condition that tends to create feelings of anxiety and insecurity among subordinates.
b. Conditions of strong competition among subordinates.
Competition in the form of a lose-win or contradictory can increase anxiety, discomfort which later gave birth to distortion.
c. Distortion communication from the bottom up.
Handling, appearance or other forms of distortion of information carried by workers cause different effects on subordinates.
d. General conditions of cynicism and distrust in the organization.
Climate like this can give rise to feelings of insecurity which then becomes distorted.
Consequences to avoid distortion of communication then the manager must be able to encourage a free flow of information from the bottom up and menyelesaika some things, such as improving employment picture, issues, planning, attitudes, and feelings of workers. In addition, to do manager, which are:
Prepare in every way to hear the good news and the bad news,
Out of the office and check how things are going and
Develop the art of listening to the right people.
Managers who isolate themselves from the distortion of communication will tend to get into trouble.
Understanding Organizational Communication
2. Horizontal Flow Communications
This communication is the flow of sending and receiving messages that occur between the leadership / supervision or among subordinates / employees. Results of several studies reveal that approximately 2/3 of organizations that exist to use this communication flow. Horizontal communication is known as lateral or cross-communication and an understanding of the current and most robust in communication. This communication focuses on the coordination of tasks, problem solving, information sharing, and conflict resolution. Many messages will flow on all lines / line without going through screening.
Horizontal communication is very important for workers at the lower level for constant communication between the supervision / supervisor and the subordinate.
In implementing national development always refers to the national identity and noble universal values to embody the life of a sovereign nation, independent, fair, prosperous, developed, and solid, both moral and ethical strength of the Indonesian nation. This is consistent with national objectives, as embodied in the Preamble to the Constitution of 1945, namely:
To protect the people and the country of Indonesia, promote the general welfare, the intellectual life of the nation, as well as participate in the establishment of world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice.
The above statement is a reflection that essentially national development goals is to create a prosperous Indonesia community life, physically and mentally. To achieve this, the construction of which is carried out by the Indonesian nation is sustainable development, which covers all aspects of society, nation and state.
So that the construction carried out more focused and results and efficiency that is effective for the life of the entire nation of Indonesia, the construction of which is carried out referring to the programmed plan gradually by observing the changes and developments taking place in public life. Therefore, the government devised a development plan that is arranged in a Repelita (Five Year Development Plan), and began Repelita VII described in a REPETA (Annual Development Plan), which contains the description of the policy in detail and measured about some Propenas (National Development Programme) , Draft State Budget 2001 is the first of implementation Propenas REPETA as an elaboration of the Guidelines 1999-2004, in addition to the first year of implementation of regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization.
Definition of National Development
Since the first Five-Year Plan (1969) to present five year plan (1999.) has realized some development programs whose results have touched all aspects of society, both aspects of the political, economic, social and cultural. Although the realization of the construction has been touched and enjoyed by almost all people, but it does not happen in a democratic means. In other words, the results of such development has not been able to reach even distribution throughout the life of the community. Still a lot of inequality or the development gap and outcomes, both between the central and regional or broad in scope is the gap between Eastern Indonesia (KTI) and the Western Region of Indonesia (KBI), especially in the economic sector. One gap in the economic sectors which are unequal economic power in each region, such as the unequal distribution of income levels (per capita) population, poverty and prosperity, market mechanisms and others.
The impact of this gap has caused some turmoil in the form of demands for equitable development and results, from and to every region in Indonesia. To reduce or even eliminate the gap, the government has taken several policy development including by enacting Law No. 22 of 1999 on Regional Autonomy that in principle the devolution of central authority to the regions to manage their own household in accordance with the potential of each region.