Friday, December 11, 2015

Definition of Organizational Communication According to the experts, Papers, Journals, Flow, Communication Networks

Definition Definition of Organizational Communication According to the experts, Papers, Journals, Flow, Network - Organizational Communication - Some studies reveal that the communications showed a correlation with the implementation of the organization as a whole. Fred T. Allen's research reveals that employees who have better information would be good employees too.

Definition of Organizational Communication According to the Experts - The organization is an entity or entities composed of persons / sections in which there is cooperation activities Based on the patterns and rules to achieve common goals.

When organizations associated or applied to groups of people, it can be concluded that
The group as a whole, has the primary goal,
Members of the group work as a unit to achieve their primary goal,
Every individual has a function designed that contribute through the achievement of goals or objectives,
Everyone's work would not be possible or can not be separated from the efforts of others,
Each member associated with the other members of this group in a special way (Gerald, 19).

Communication is important for organization and information essential for effective communication. Someone who will control the power control information organization. The organizational structure is determined by the effectiveness of the communication. When an organization is required to achieve the objectives, the members of which are within the structure will work in accordance with the position and function to achieve the intended purpose. Each structure complement each other and influence each other. Consequently, the members-members in it will be interconnected through the methods of achieving goals. Thus, members of the organization structured into interconnected systems are able to interpret the message, both coming from members of groups / organizations themselves or come from outside, or able to communicate something to whom and in what manner.

Communication within the organization can occur in the form of words written or spoken, gesture, or a visual symbol, which results in a change of behavior in organizations, both among managers, employees, and associates involved in the delivery or transfer of communication. The end result is the exchange of information and delivery of the significance or the process of communication activities within the organization.

Specifically, there are three organizational communication activities, namely:
Operational-Internal, which structure the communication executed in an organization in order to achieve the objectives of employment.
Operational-Externally, the structure of communication within the organization that concentrates on achieving the goals of the work carried out by people and groups outside the organization.
Personal, ie all the incidental changes and information and feelings felt by humans that took place whenever they are together (Lewis, in Rahman, 2000: 3).

Network and Communication Flow Organization
a. Organizational Communication Networks

Network is a system of communication line associated with the sender and receiver in a social function organization, influencing the behavior of individuals who work in them and the position of individuals working in the network stretcher and plays a key role in determining behavior, and the behavior of the people they affect ,

Lewis split 4 (four) communication network functions, namely:
Regularity network,
Findings / innovative network,
Integrity of integrative / maintenance network, and
Network informative-instructive. Each network is connected between one or more organizational goals (eg, compatibility, adjustment, moral, and institutionalization).

The fourth function of the communications network is described as follows:
Network communication regular contact with the organization's goals regarding assurance of conformity to planning, guarantee productivity, including controls, orders, forms of command and feed beck (feedback) subordinate to the superior (higher in the task of activity. Examples : statement of policies and rules.
Innovative communication network strives to ensure organizational adaptation to internal and external influences (technology, sociology, education, economics, politics) and support for the continuation of the productivity and effectiveness, including problem solving, strategic adaptation to change, and the implementation of new ideas. Example: suggestions and meeting participation system troubleshooting.
Integrative communication network / maintenance including feelings of self, combined (solidarity) and the work that is directly related to the purpose of the organization, its main problem employee morale. Indirectly linked to the institutionalization that involves self-organization and take the distance to rumor, informal (unofficial), for example grapevine, excessive praise, and promotion.
Informative-instructive communications network aims to ensure the objectives are more suitable, appropriate, moral, and institutional. Thereby increasing productivity and effectiveness. This includes the provision and acquisition of information is not associated with other communication networks. These instructions subordinating the requirements of the job early, for example: records bulletins, corporate publications and training activities.

Looking at the organization as a network communications condition information implies the nature and dynamics of behavior. In addition to the communication system as a sub group of the system, it will be easier for us to find out about the four main sub-systems.

b. Organizational Communication Flow

Communication patterns and activities of the organization is dependent on the purpose, management style and organizational climate is concerned, it means that communication depends on the forces at work in the organization, which is shown by those who do the sending and receiving messages.

Based on the functional flow of the communication that occurs within a formal organization consists of a vertical flow (from top to bottom and from bottom to top) and horizontal flow (lateral or cross).

1. Flow Vertical Communications (Vertical Communication Flow)
a. From top to bottom (Downward Communication)

This communication channel is most often used in oganisasi. The communication flow is sending a message of leadership (supervision) to subordinate (subordinate). This current is used to send orders, instructions, objectives, policies, memorandum to employees at lower levels in the organization. The most fundamental problem is that the communication from the top down only one way channel, which does not provide feedback (feedback) of workers in the organization. The assumption is that if workers know what is known to the manager, then they will force themselves to resolve the problems of the organization / company. That is, the information leads to understanding and understanding produce actions and desired completion.

According to Katz and Kahn (in Rahman, 2000) there are 5 types of special type of communication downward, namely:
Job Instruction (Work Instructions), namely komunikai which refers to the completion of specific tasks.
Rationale Job (Job ratio), which is communication that produces understanding of the task and the relationship with other settings.
Procedure and Practice (Procedures and Implementation), the communication of the policies, rules, regulations and benefits exist.
Feedback (Feedback), the communication appreciative of how individuals carry out their duties properly.
Indoctrinations of goals, namely communications designed with character ideology that motivate employees about the importance of an organization's overall mission.

Two things can happen based on the type of the above are the limitations and ambiguities. Some of the reasons that led to the communication from the top down is not effective is
There is a lack of clarity in defining the responsibilities of komkunikasi from top to bottom,
Lack of understanding of the management of subordinates,
Management does not have the time to find out whether they serve communication techniques are effective or not,
Managers do not hold face to face meetings between supervision and non-supervision to discuss business conditions and employment,
Lack of communication training programs in order to teach the art of personnel management in understanding the rules of the game are there and the goals of workers as well as differences in the value of existing systems.

To avoid the consequences of ineffective communication, the manager should be more meetings with the workers. If this is not done then the results appear can be described as follows:
Bosses fail to explain the duties of subordinates or fail to give an accurate picture of their position in the organization.
Subordinates also failed to understand the explanation given, and perhaps they are in the position of not being able or not to be questioned about it.
Managers and subordinates may have a conflict of values.

The basic method of downward communication has three essential elements that should be considered by managers, namely:
1. Specifying the target to communicate.

2. Ensure that the contents of the communication has the following qualities:
Orientation and receiver
There is no hidden meaning

3. Apply the most good technical communication in order to effectively get the message among the recipients.

The main key of downward communication is that workers should react more efejktif to the problems that they consider to be the most personal interests against the boss.

But the important thing here is if managers and workers want to achieve the goal of clear roles and obtain accurate information, each group requires an understanding of the flow of communication.

2. Communication from the bottom up (Upward Communication)
This communication is communication originating from subordinate (subordinate) to superiors (supervision) in order to provide feedback (feedback) for management. Workers using this communication channel as an opportunity to express ideas or ideas that they know. The basic assumption of this upward communication is that workers should be treated as a partner in finding the best way to achieve the goal. Communication from the ground up to be interesting ideas and help workers to receive better answers about the problems and responsibilities and to help ease the flow and receipt of communication from subordinates to superiors (manager), ie in this case the hearing that both produce a good listener ,

Upward communication has five specific types, namely:
Information on employee attitudes, morale and efficiency related to policy, planning, and issue-problem.
Significant development work units in the department.
Errors which lowers efficiency.
The problem is not known how the settlement by workers.

Some of the reasons that cause the upward communication is not effective is:
Many workers are afraid to assume that expresses things about the company is actually very dangerous,
Pekeja believe that if they conflict with the leadership, it will hinder the promotion. Criticism and expression is seen as an action like that one because it can create subordinate look bad in the eyes of the boss,
Workers sure that they are not interested in their problems. A management controller, run by his own mind regardless of the range and the thinking of employees,
Workers felt that the idea was not appreciated,
Workers are sure that there are shortcomings in terms of capability and responsibility, and
The workers believe that the manager does not directly solve the problem.

Besides, a failure in this communication if managers receive incorrect information from subordinates, caused among other things:
Workers do not want to learn everything supervision of actual and potential discredit the workers,
Ordinary workers accentuate its contribution to the company to superiors or competition with people in other parts of the organization,
Anxiety workers personally, hostility, aspirations and belief systems are almost always shaping and coloring the interpretation of their acceptance of what they have learned and received for distribution, and
Workers are competing for the position of manager and allow managers to exercise its authority in a professional organization.

Three factors consistently associated with upward communication is:
 Subordinate trust the boss,
Subordinate perception that superiors strongly influence their future later, and
Mobilizing subordinate aspirations.

All subordinates will tend to distort the communication from the bottom up through the structure of authority, which would create greater participation, less secretive, and subordinates feel less dependent on superiors.

There are several factors that can lead to the emergence of a climate conducive to distortion, such as:
a. Authority structure of the organization.
Arbitrary authority and more flexible tend to increase the distortion of the communication from the bottom up, values and rules to the contrary, secretion, and the closure of supervision is a condition that tends to create feelings of anxiety and insecurity among subordinates.

b. Conditions of strong competition among subordinates.
Competition in the form of a lose-win or contradictory can increase anxiety, discomfort which later gave birth to distortion.

c. Distortion communication from the bottom up.
Handling, appearance or other forms of distortion of information carried by workers cause different effects on subordinates.

d. General conditions of cynicism and distrust in the organization.
Climate like this can give rise to feelings of insecurity which then becomes distorted.

Consequences to avoid distortion of communication then the manager must be able to encourage a free flow of information from the bottom up and menyelesaika some things, such as improving employment picture, issues, planning, attitudes, and feelings of workers. In addition, to do manager, which are:
Prepare in every way to hear the good news and the bad news,
Out of the office and check how things are going and
Develop the art of listening to the right people.

Managers who isolate themselves from the distortion of communication will tend to get into trouble.

Understanding Organizational Communication

2. Horizontal Flow Communications

This communication is the flow of sending and receiving messages that occur between the leadership / supervision or among subordinates / employees. Results of several studies reveal that approximately 2/3 of organizations that exist to use this communication flow. Horizontal communication is known as lateral or cross-communication and an understanding of the current and most robust in communication. This communication focuses on the coordination of tasks, problem solving, information sharing, and conflict resolution. Many messages will flow on all lines / line without going through screening.

Horizontal communication is very important for workers at the lower level for constant communication between the supervision / supervisor and the subordinate.

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